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Evaluation of the Safety and Efficacy of Avacopan, a C5a Receptor Inhibitor, in Patients With Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibody-Associated Vasculitis Treated Concomitantly With Rituximab or Cyclophosphamide/Azathioprine: Protocol for a Randomized, Double-Blind, Active-Controlled, Phase 3 Trial


JMIR Res Protoc. 2020 Apr 7;9(4):e16664. doi: 10.2196/16664.

Peter A Merkel 1 2David R Jayne 3Chao Wang 4Jan Hillson 5Pirow Bekker 5

Author Information

1 Division of Rheumatology, Department of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, United States.

2 Division of Clinical Epidemiology, Department of Biostatistics, Epidemiology, and Informatics, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, United States.

3 Department of Medicine, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom.

4 Biostatistics, Pharma Data Associates, LLC, Piscataway, NJ, United States.

5 Research and Development, ChemoCentryx, Inc, Mountain View, CA, United States.


Background: Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis is a serious, often life-threatening disease. In new-onset disease or a relapse, the standard treatment is immunosuppressive therapy with glucocorticoids; these therapies are associated with substantial short- and long-term toxicity. Complement component 5a (C5a) binding to C5a receptor (C5aR) may play a central role in the pathogenesis of ANCA-associated vasculitis. Avacopan is a novel, orally bioavailable, and highly selective antagonist of human C5aR. Avacopan does not interfere with the production of C5b or the membrane attack complex (ie, terminal complement complex) and does not block C5a binding to a second receptor, C5L2 (also called C5aR2), shown to be protective in antimyeloperoxidase glomerulonephritis. This trial will evaluate if avacopan replaces the need for chronic glucocorticoids in the treatment of ANCA-associated vasculitis.

Objective: The aim of this study is to determine the proportions of patients in remission at week 26 and with sustained remission at week 52, defined as Birmingham Vasculitis Activity Score=0, and not taking glucocorticoids within the 4 weeks before week 26 and week 52, respectively.

Methods: The Avacopan Development in Vasculitis to Obtain Corticosteroid elimination and Therapeutic Efficacy study is a randomized, double-blind, active-comparator (prednisone), 2-arm study evaluating the safety and efficacy of avacopan versus prednisone, administered in combination with other immunosuppressive therapy. Eligible subjects will have active disease requiring induction of remission. Subjects are stratified based on the type of immunosuppressive therapy, ANCA subtype, and new or relapsing disease. Target sample size is 300 patients, enrolled at over 200 sites globally. All authors and local ethics committees approved the study design. All patients will provide informed consent.

Results: Enrollment of patients was completed in Q4 2018. Topline results are anticipated to be published by Q3 2020.

Conclusions: Results will be released irrespective of whether the findings are positive or negative.

Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02994927; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02994927.

International registered report identifier (irrid): DERR1-10.2196/16664.