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Remission maintenance in ANCA-associated vasculitis: does one size fit all?

Author

Berti A1,2, Specks U2. Expert Rev Clin Immunol. 2019 Dec;15(12):1273-1286. doi: 10.1080/1744666X.2020.1693260. Epub 2019 Nov 24.

Author Information

1 Rheumatology Department, Santa Chiara Hospital and Department of Cellular, Computational and Integrative Biology (CIBIO), University of Trento, Trento, Italy.

2 Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine and Science, Rochester, MN, USA.

Abstract

Introduction: The majority of the patients with anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibody (ANCA) associated vasculitis (AAV) achieve remission with effective induction therapy. Therefore, prevention of relapses and avoiding long-term damage and treatment-related toxicity are major challenges.Areas covered: This review provides an update on maintenance therapy in AAV, emphasizing the available treatment options for granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) and microscopic polyangiitis (MPA). Among the spectrum of all patients with AAV, those at higher risk of relapse have recently been identified. Clinical trials have yielded robust results about various options for maintenance of remission including common disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs, i.e. azathioprine, methotrexate, and mycophenolate mofetil) and rituximab (RTX). However, outcomes of these studies are not easy to compare.Expert opinion: Regardless of the treatment used, patients presenting with an anti-proteinase-3 ANCA, relapsing GPA have a substantially higher risk of relapse compared to patients with newly diagnosed MPA or positive anti-myeloperoxidase ANCA. While the efficacy of common DMARDs for remission maintenance is heterogeneous, the role of RTX seems particularly promising for the high-risk patients, although the most appropriate dose and timing of retreatment with RTX remain under controversial. Low-dose glucocorticoid use for remission maintenance versus complete discontinuation also remains under investigation.