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Effect of pericardial effusion on outcomes in children admitted with systemic lupus erythematosus: a multicenter retrospective cohort study from the United States

Author

Dalby ST1, Tang X1, Daily JA1, Sukumaran S1, Collins RT2, Bolin EH1. Lupus. 2019 Feb 11:961203319828523. doi: 10.1177/0961203319828523. [Epub ahead of print]

Author Information

1 University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences and Arkansas Children's Research Institute, Little Rock AR, USA.

2 Stanford University and Lucille Packard Children's Hospital, Palo Alto, CA, USA.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

We sought to describe characteristics of children admitted with pericardial effusion (PCE) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and determine the association between PCE and outcomes of interest.

METHODS

We performed a retrospective cohort study of the Pediatric Health Information System (PHIS). Patients were included if they were admitted to a PHIS participating hospital from 2004 to 2015 with a diagnosis of SLE and age ≤18 years. Children with congenital heart disease or who had undergone heart surgery were excluded. PCE was the primary predictor variable; multivariable analysis was used to evaluate the effect of PCE on the following outcomes: mortality, length of stay (LOS), and readmission within 30 days.

RESULTS

There were 5679 admissions, of which 705 (12.4%) had PCE. Median age at admission was 15 years (interquartile range: 13-17). There were no significant differences for age or sex between patients admitted either with or without PCE. A significantly higher percentage of children in the PCE group were black compared with those without PCE (43% vs. 31%, p<0.001). In multivariable analysis, the odds of a black patient having PCE were 1.7 higher than non-black patients ( p<0.001). In-hospital mortality was 2.5 times higher in children with PCE compared with those without PCE ( p=0.027). Those with PCE also had 1.5 greater odds of readmission within 30 days ( p<0.001). PCE was not associated with increased LOS (0.99, p=0.753).

CONCLUSION

PCE is common in admissions of children with SLE. There are disproportionately more black patients with SLE affected by PCE than non-black. PCE is associated with significantly higher mortality and rates of readmission.