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Type I Interferons in Autoimmune Disease

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Crow MK1, Olferiev M1, Kirou KA1. Annu Rev Pathol. 2018 Oct 17. doi: 10.1146/annurev-pathol-020117-043952. [Epub ahead of print]

Abstract

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Abstract Type I interferons, which make up the first cytokine family to be described and are the essential mediators of antivirus host defense, have emerged as central elements in the immunopathology of systemic autoimmune diseases, with systemic lupus erythematosus as the prototype. Lessons from investigation of interferon regulation following virus infection can be applied to lupus, with the conclusion that sustained production of type I interferon shifts nearly all components of the immune system toward pathologic functions that result in tissue damage and disease. We review recent data, mainly from studies of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus, that provide new insights into the mechanisms of induction and the immunologic consequences of chronic activation of the type I interferon pathway. Current concepts implicate endogenous nucleic acids, driving both cytosolic sensors and endosomal Toll-like receptors, in interferon pathway activation and suggest targets for development of novel therapeutics that may restore the immune system to health. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Pathology: Mechanisms of Disease Volume 14 is January 24, 2019. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.