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Ultrasound of Subtalar Joint Synovitis in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis: Results of an OMERACT Reliability Exercise Using Consensual Definitions

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Bruyn GAW1, Siddle HJ1, Hanova P1, Costantino F1, Iagnocco A1, Delle Sedie A1, Gutierrez M1, Hammer HB1, Jernberg E1, Loeille D1, Micu MC1, Moller I1, Pineda C1, Richards B1, Stoenoiu MS1, Suzuki T1, Terslev L1, Vlad V1, Wonink R1, d'Agostino J Rheumatol. 2018 Nov 1. pii: jrheum.171490. doi: 10.3899/jrheum.171490. [Epub ahead of print] MA1, Wakefield RJ1.

Abstract

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1 From MC Groep Hospitals, Lelystad, the Netherlands; Leeds Institute of Rheumatic and Musculoskeletal Medicine, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK; Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic; Hôpital Ambroise Paré, Boulogne-Billancourt, France; Università degli Studi di Torino, Turin; Azienda Ospedaliero Universitaria Pisana, Pisa, Italy; Instituto Nacional de Rehabilitación, Mexico City, Mexico; Diakonhjemmet Hospital, Oslo, Norway; Virginia Mason Medical Center/University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA; Hôpital Brabois, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire (CHU) de Nancy, Nancy, France; Rehabilitation Clinical Hospital, Cluj Napoca, Romania; Instituto Poal de Reumatología, Barcelona, Spain; Institute of Rheumatology and Orthopaedics, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Sydney, Australia; Cliniques Universitaires Saint-Luc Institut de Recherche Expérimentale et Clinique (IREC), Brussels, Belgium; Japanese Red Cross Medical Center, Tokyo, Japan; Center for Rheumatology and Spine Diseases, Rigshospitalet-Glostrup, Glostrup, Denmark; Clinical Hospital Sf. Maria, Bucharest, Romania; Bergman Clinics, Naarden, the Netherlands. UCB, Celgene, and Janssen-Cilag BV, the Netherlands, provided financial support for the meeting that was the basis of this article. Dr. H.J. Siddle is funded through a Health Education England/National Institute for Health Research Clinical Lectureship. G.A. Bruyn, MD, PhD, MC Groep Hospitals; H.J. Siddle, MD, Leeds Institute of Rheumatic and Musculoskeletal Medicine, University of Leeds; P. Hanova, MD, PhD, Charles University; F. Costantino, PhD, Hôpital Ambroise Paré; A. Iagnocco, MD, PhD, Università degli Studi di Torino; A. Delle Sedie, MD, Azienda Ospedaliero Universitaria Pisana; M. Gutierrez, MD, Instituto Nacional de Rehabilitación; H.B. Hammer, MD, PhD, Diakonhjemmet Hospital; E. Jernberg, MD, Virginia Mason Medical Center/University of Washington; D. Loeille, MD, PhD, Hôpital Brabois, CHU de Nancy; M.C. Micu, MD, Rehabilitation Clinical Hospital; I. Moller, MD, PhD, Instituto Poal de Reumatología; C. Pineda, MD, Instituto Nacional de Rehabilitación; B. Richards, MD, Institute of Rheumatology and Orthopaedics, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital; M.S. Stoenoiu, MD, PhD, Cliniques Universitaires Saint-Luc IREC; T. Suzuki, MD, Japanese Red Cross Medical Center; L. Terslev, MD, PhD, Center for Rheumatology and Spine Diseases, Rigshospitalet-Glostrup; V. Vlad, MD, Clinical Hospital Sf. Maria; R. Wonink, Bergman Clinics; M.A. d'Agostino, MD, PhD, Hôpital Ambroise Paré; R.J. Wakefield, MD, PhD, Leeds Institute of Rheumatic and Musculoskeletal Medicine, University of Leeds. Drs. Bruyn and Siddle equally contributed to this work. Address correspondence to Dr. G.A. Bruyn, Department of Rheumatology, MC Groep Hospitals, Ziekenhuisweg 100, 8333 AA Lelystad, the Netherlands. E-mail: g.bruijn@mcgroep.com. Accepted for publication July 26, 2018.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the intraobserver and interobserver reliability of the ultrasonographic (US) assessment of subtalar joint (STJ) synovitis in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA).

METHODS: Following a Delphi process, 12 sonographers conducted an US reliability exercise on 10 RA patients with hindfoot pain. The anteromedial, posteromedial, and posterolateral STJ was assessed using B-mode and power Doppler (PD) techniques according to an agreed US protocol and using a 4-grade semiquantitative grading score for synovitis [synovial hypertrophy (SH) and signal] and a dichotomous score for the presence of joint effusion (JE). Intraobserver and interobserver reliability were computed by Cohen's and Light's κ. Weighted κ coefficients with absolute weighting were computed for B-mode and PD signal.

RESULTS: Mean weighted Cohen's κ for SH, PD, and JE were 0.80 (95% CI 0.62-0.98), 0.61 (95% CI 0.48-0.73), and 0.52 (95% CI 0.36-0.67), respectively. Weighted Cohen's κ for SH, PD, and JE in the anteromedial, posteromedial, and posterolateral STJ were -0.04 to 0.79, 0.42-0.95, and 0.28-0.77; 0.31-1, -0.05 to 0.65, and -0.2 to 0.69; 0.66-1, 0.52-1, and 0.42-0.88, respectively. Weighted Light's κ for SH was 0.67 (95% CI 0.58-0.74), 0.46 (95% CI 0.35-0.59) for PD, and 0.16 (95% CI 0.08-0.27) for JE. Weighted Light's κ for SH, PD, and JE were 0.63 (95% CI 0.45-0.82), 0.33 (95% CI 0.19-0.42), and 0.09 (95% CI -0.01 to 0.19), for the anteromedial; 0.49 (95% CI 0.27-0.64), 0.35 (95% CI 0.27-0.4), and 0.04 (95% CI -0.06 to 0.1) for posteromedial; and 0.82 (95% CI 0.75-0.89), 0.66 (95% CI 0.56-0.8), and 0.18 (95% CI 0.04-0.34) for posterolateral STJ, respectively.

CONCLUSION: Using a multisite assessment, US appears to be a reliable tool for assessing synovitis of STJ in RA.