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Incident fracture is associated with a period of accelerated loss of hip BMD: the Study of Osteoporotic Fractures

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Christiansen BA1, Harrison SL2, Fink HA3, Lane NE4; Study of Osteoporotic Fractures Research Group. Osteoporos Int. 2018 Jul 10. doi: 10.1007/s00198-018-4606-6. [Epub ahead of print]

Abstract

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1 Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Lawrence J. Ellison Musculoskeletal Research Center, University of California Davis Health, 4635 2nd Avenue, Suite 2000, Sacramento, CA, 95817, USA. bchristiansen@ucdavis.edu.

2 Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA.

3 Geriatric Research, Education & Clinical Center, Minneapolis VA Health Care System, Minneapolis, MN, 55417, USA.

4 Department of Internal Medicine - Rheumatology, Allergy, and Clinical Immunology, University of California Davis Health, Sacramento, CA, USA.

Abstract

Bone loss following a fracture could increase the risk of future fractures. In this study, we found that elderly women who had an upper body fracture or multiple fractures lost more bone at the hip than those who did not fracture. This suggests a possible systemic bone loss response initiated by fracture.

INTRODUCTION: A prior fracture is one of the strongest predictors of subsequent fracture risk, but the etiology of this phenomenon remains unclear. Systemic bone loss post-fracture could contribute to increased risk of subsequent fractures. Therefore, in this study, we investigated whether incident fractures, including those distant to the hip, are associated with accelerated loss of hip bone mineral density (BMD) in elderly women.

METHODS: We analyzed data from 3956 Caucasian women aged ā‰„ā€‰65 years who were enrolled in the Study of Osteoporotic Fractures and completed hip BMD measurements at study visit 4 (year 6) and visit 6 (year 10). Clinical fractures between visits 4 and 6 were ascertained from triannual questionnaires and centrally adjudicated by review of community radiographic reports. Subjects provided questionnaire information and clinical variables at examinations for known and potential covariates. Generalized linear models were used to calculate average annual percent change in total hip BMD between visits 4 and 6 for each incident fracture type and for upper body and lower body fractures combined. A subset of women (nā€‰=ā€‰3783) was analyzed for annual total hip BMD change between study visits 4 and 5 and between study visits 5 and 6 to evaluate change in total hip BMD during these 2-year intervals.

RESULTS: Women with incident upper body fracture or incident lower body fracture exhibited reductions in total hip BMD of 0.89 and 0.77% per year, respectively, while women who did not fracture exhibited reductions in total hip BMD of 0.66% per year during the 4-year period. Accelerated loss of hip BMD was isolated to the 2-year time interval that included the fracture. Loss of total hip BMD was not affected by the number of days from fracture to follow up DXA.

CONCLUSIONS: Systemic bone loss following fracture may increase the risk of future fractures at all skeletal sites. There is a need for improved understanding of mechanisms leading to apparent accelerated bone loss following a fracture in order to reduce subsequent fracture risk.